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古玩舊貨市場首次被納入監管
2020-01-11 18:49   来源:  www.kenclickrich.com   评论:0 点击:

古玩舊貨市場首次被納入監管提及北京潘家园、琉璃厂,上海的福佑路、豫园华宝楼等,都汇聚着一批南来北往的

  提及北京潘家园、琉璃厂,上海的福佑路、豫园华宝楼等,都汇聚着一批南来北往的文物“淘客”,民间文物收藏一直有着广泛的群众基础,却一直游走于监管的“灰色地带”。即将于2020年3月1日起施行的《上海市民间收藏文物经营管理办法》(以下简称《办法》)首次将古玩旧货市场内商户的文物经营活动纳入监管范围,“古玩市场购销文物”终于可以走到“阳光”下经营。

Mention beijing panjiayuan, glass factory, shanghai fuyou road, yuyuan huabaolou and so on, all gather a batch of south to north cultural relics \"panning guest \", folk cultural relics collection has been a broad mass base, but has been wandering in the\" gray zone \"of supervision. The Measures for the Management of the Management of Cultural Relics in Shanghai Municipality (hereinafter referred to as \"Measures \"), which will come into effect on March 1,2020, include for the first time the cultural relics management activities of the merchants in the antique and used goods market in the scope of supervision, and the\" antique market for the purchase and sale of cultural relics \"can finally go to the\" sunshine \"to operate.

  1月8日,上海市司法局、上海市文化和旅游局、文物局联合召开《上海市民间收藏文物经营管理办法》新闻通气会。会上透露,《上海市民间收藏文物经营管理办法》将于2020年3月1日起施行。《办法》旨在进一步加强对民间收藏文物经营活动的监管,促进文物市场健康有序发展。其中有诸多亮点,这是全国第一部关于繁荣和规范文物市场的省级政府规章,《办法》中首次将古玩市场和电子商务平台纳入监管范围,这在全国都是创新之举。

On January 8, the Shanghai Municipal Judicial Bureau, the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Culture and Tourism and the Bureau of Cultural Relics jointly held a press briefing on the Measures for the Management of Cultural Relics in the Folk Collections of Shanghai. The meeting revealed that the Measures on the Management of Cultural Relics in Shanghai Folk Collections will come into effect as of March 1,2020. The Measures aim at further strengthening the supervision over the management of cultural relics in folk collections and promoting the healthy and orderly development of the cultural relics market. There are many bright spots among them, which is the first provincial government regulation on the prosperity and regulation of the cultural relics market in the country, and the first time that the antiques market and e-commerce platform are included in the regulation in the \"method \", which is an innovative move in the whole country.

  古语有云:“乱世藏金,盛世藏宝。”民间文物收藏一直有着广泛的群众基础。据统计,目前上海共有文物商店53家、经营文物拍卖的企业70家;涉及文物经营的古玩旧货市场11个,市场内经营户1103家;涉及旧物、古玩(文玩)经营的互联网网站317个。

There is an old saying:\" in turbulent times, the golden age, the treasure.\" Folk cultural relics collection has always had a broad mass base. According to statistics, there are at present 53 cultural relics shops in Shanghai,70 enterprises engaged in auction of cultural relics,11 antique and used goods markets involving cultural relics,1,103 operators in the market, and 317 Internet websites involving antiques and antiques.

  近年来,随着文物价格持续攀升,文物流通领域也随之出现一些“乱象”:夹带文物经营活动的古玩旧货市场发展迅速,游走于监管的“灰色地带”;一些不法分子通过虚假鉴定、虚构拍卖等方式,骗取高额费用;网络文物交易活动日益活跃,亟待加强监管……

In recent years, as the prices of cultural relics continue to rise, there have been some \"chaos\" in the field of cultural relics circulation: the antique used goods market with cultural relics business activities has developed rapidly, moving away from the \"gray area\" of supervision; some lawbreakers have defrauded high fees by means of false identification and fictitious auction; and the online cultural relics trading activities are becoming more and more active, so it is urgent to strengthen supervision.

  《文物保护法》规定文物商店和经营文物拍卖的拍卖企业两类主要的文物经营主体,实践中,古玩旧货市场夹带文物经营的情况也较为普遍,在满足民间文物收藏和交易需求的同时,也带来一些监管上的困境,主要是由于相关法律法规规定的文物商店审批条件很高,包括200万元以上注册资本、5名以上取得中级以上文物博物专业技术职务的人员等,古玩旧货市场内的商户很难达到,但实际上其又或多或少存在着夹带文物经营的情况,游走于监管的“灰色地带”。针对这一情况,《办法》第九条规定,古玩旧货市场内的商户可以由市场主办单位统一取得文物商店设立许可,依法从事文物购销经营活动,并明确了市场主办单位对市场内从事文物经营活动商户的管理责任,从而形成了政府管古玩市场、古玩市场管商户的监管模式。这项举措将使大量小规模商户可以在“阳光”下合法开展文物经营活动,大大激发市场活力。

《 The Law on the Protection of Cultural Relics stipulates that there are two main types of cultural relics management entities in cultural relics shops and auction enterprises that operate cultural relics auctions.In practice, the market for antique and used goods carries with it a relatively common situation of cultural relics management.While satisfying the demand for collection and trading of folk cultural relics, it also brings some regulatory difficulties, mainly because of the high approval requirements stipulated by relevant laws and regulations for cultural relics shops, including more than 2 million yuan of registered capital and more than five persons who have obtained professional posts in cultural relics and above the intermediate level. In response to this situation, Article 9 of the Measures stipulates that merchants in the antique and used goods market may obtain permission for the establishment of cultural relics shops, engage in the purchase and sale of cultural relics in accordance with the law, and clarify the responsibility of market sponsors for the management of merchants engaged in cultural relics business activities in the market, thus forming a regulatory model for government-run antique and antique market-run merchants. This initiative will enable a large number of small-scale businesses in the "sunshine" can legally carry out cultural relics business activities, greatly stimulate market vitality.

  据悉,将古玩旧货市场内商户的文物经营活动纳入监管范围,这一模式也是此次立法一个重要创新,得到了国家文物局的认可,为国家层面立法积累经验。

It is reported that the cultural relics management activities of the merchants in the antique used goods market are included in the scope of supervision, and this model is also an important innovation in the legislation, which has been recognized by the State Bureau of Cultural Heritage and accumulated experience for the national level legislation.

  针对一些不法分子通过虚假鉴定、虚构拍卖等方式,骗取高额费用;网络文物交易活动日益活跃,亟待加强监管等乱象,《办法》创设了一系列行为规范,如要求文物经营单位公示相关证照,增加了古玩旧货市场主办单位的管理责任,禁止冒充文物进行销售,禁止通过虚构拍卖、虚假鉴定等骗取文物鉴定、展览、服务等费用,禁止通过虚假宣传误导文物购买者等,并设定了相应的法律责任,有效保障了市民的合法权益。针对文物经营监管的重点领域和薄弱环节,还明确了古玩旧货市场主办单位、电子商务平台经营者的管理责任,以及文物经营的禁止行为。

The Measures create a series of codes of conduct, such as requiring cultural relics management units to publish relevant licenses, increasing the management responsibility of the host units of the antique and used goods market, prohibiting the sale of cultural relics by impersonation, prohibiting the fraudulent use of fees for cultural relics appraisal, exhibition and service through fictitious auction and false appraisal, prohibiting the purchase of cultural relics through false propaganda, and setting up corresponding legal responsibilities, effectively protecting the legitimate rights and interests of citizens. Aiming at the key areas and weak links of cultural relics management supervision, the management responsibility of the host units of antique used goods market and the operators of e-commerce platform, as well as the prohibited behavior of cultural relics management are also clarified.

  针对社会上对民间收藏文物鉴定有很大的需求,此次《办法》中明确要求建立民间收藏文物鉴定咨询服务机制。上海从2017年开始,通过政府购买服务等方式,先后组织上海文物商店、朵云轩集团、上海市收藏协会和上海市文物保护研究中心四家单位,向社会开展常态化民间收藏文物免费鉴定咨询服务试点工作,并制定了相关工作规程。截止到目前,四家单位已累计接待文物收藏爱好者2万余人次,无偿鉴定文物藏品超过6万件,受到市民普遍欢迎和社会舆论的广泛好评。该服务模式的建立,有效遏制了借文物鉴定名义实施诈骗活动等市场乱象。国家文物局对此项工作予以充分肯定,并专门印发通知要求各省、自治区、直辖市参考借鉴这一“上海模式”。

In view of the great demand for the appraisal of folk collection cultural relics in the society, the Measures explicitly require the establishment of consultation service mechanism for the appraisal of folk collection cultural relics. Shanghai began in 2017, through the government purchase of services and other ways, successively organized the Shanghai Cultural relics Store, Douyunxuan Group, Shanghai Collection Association and Shanghai Cultural Heritage Conservation Research Center four units, to the community to carry out a regular folk collection of cultural relics free appraisal consulting service pilot work, and formulated the relevant work rules. Up to now, four units have received more than 20,000 lovers of cultural relics collections, and over 60,000 items of cultural relics have been appraised without compensation. The establishment of the service model effectively curbed the use of cultural relics in the name of fraud activities and other market chaos. The State Administration of Cultural Relics fully affirmed this work and issued a special circular requesting all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities to refer to the \"Shanghai Model\" for reference.

  文物经营活动监管涉及市场监管、商务、公安、海关以及文旅局执法总队等较多部门和单位。最高法院、最高检察院、国家文物局等联合印发的《涉案文物鉴定评估管理办法》中只规定了对“文物犯罪刑事案件涉及的文物”的鉴定,未包括行政执法案件中涉案文物的鉴定。

The supervision of cultural relics business activities involves more departments and units, such as market supervision, business, public security, customs and law enforcement teams of the Bureau. The Supreme Court, the Supreme Procuratorate, the State Administration of Cultural Relics and other jointly issued Measures for the Evaluation and Management of Cultural Relics Involved in the Case only stipulate the appraisal of \"cultural relics involved in criminal cases of cultural relics \", not including the appraisal of cultural relics involved in administrative law enforcement cases.

  在《办法》起草过程中,市场监管部门和局执法总队等反映,文物鉴定专业性较强,在执法过程中对争议标的是否属于文物难以确认。这是目前对文物经营活动较少开展行政执法活动的重要原因。为解决此问题,《办法》明确,行政管理部门开展文物经营执法活动中,需要对涉案文物进行鉴定的,也可以委托国家文物局认定的鉴定机构进行鉴定。从而将涉案文物鉴定范围扩大至包含行政执法案件。同时,《办法》明确了相关部门之间的执法协作机制,保障相关行政执法活动的顺利开展。此举是在面向社会开展常态化民间收藏文物公益性鉴定咨询服务工作基础上,构建“多层次文物鉴定服务体系”的又一次重要创新实践。

In the drafting process of the Measures, the market supervision department and the bureau law enforcement team and so on reflect that the appraisal of cultural relics is relatively professional, and it is difficult to confirm whether the object of dispute belongs to cultural relics in the process of law enforcement. This is an important reason why there are fewer administrative law enforcement activities on cultural relics. In order to solve this problem, the Measures make it clear that, in carrying out the activities of law enforcement for the management of cultural relics, the administrative departments need to carry out the appraisal of the cultural relics involved in the case, and may also entrust the appraisal agencies identified by the State Bureau of Cultural Relics to do so. Thus, the scope of cultural relics identification involved in the case was extended to include administrative law enforcement cases. At the same time, the Measures clarify the coordination mechanism of law enforcement among relevant departments to ensure the smooth development of relevant administrative law enforcement activities. This is another important innovation practice of constructing \"multi-level cultural relic appraisal service system\" on the basis of carrying out the public welfare appraisal service of the regular folk collection for the society.

  在申请文物经营资质许可条件中,有一条核心要素就是文物拍卖企业要有5名以上文博专业高级职称人员,文物商店要有5名以上文博专业中级职称人员,而这些专业人员主要集中在文博单位,因此,这条要求长期以来困扰着文物经营企业。此次《办法》首次提出支持文物经营单位的专业技术人员参加文博系列职称评定,并建立文物鉴定人才培养基地,开展专业培训等,为促进文物经营企业高质量发展提供强有力的人才队伍支撑。

In applying for the qualification permit for cultural relics management, one of the core elements is that cultural relics auction enterprises should have more than five senior professional title personnel for cultural relics auction enterprises, and cultural relics shops should have more than five intermediate professional title personnel for cultural relics shops. For the first time, the Measures propose to support the professional and technical personnel of cultural relics management units to participate in the evaluation of cultural and technical titles, and establish a training base for cultural relics appraisal personnel and carry out professional training, so as to provide a strong support for the high-quality development of cultural relics management enterprises.


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