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14项最奇怪的科学发现栉水母肛门时隐时现
2020-01-08 00:09   来源:  www.kenclickrich.com   评论:0 点击:

14项最奇怪的科学发现栉水母肛门时隐时现新浪科技讯北京时间1月3日消息,据国外媒体报道,年复一年,科学永

  新浪科技讯北京时间1月3日消息,据国外媒体报道,年复一年,科学永远不会停止前进的脚步,不断给我们以启发,令我们感到惊奇和敬畏。可能有些研究结果会令我们诧异:“我们真需要知道这些吗?”接下来,我们将为你介绍2019年最奇怪的14项科学发现。

Sina science and technology news beijing time january 3 news, according to foreign media reports, year after year, science will never stop moving forward, constantly give us inspiration, we feel surprised and awe. Some of the findings may surprise us:\" Do we really need to know that?\" Next, we will introduce you to the 14 strangest scientific findings of 2019.

  美食在我们体内注定无法长久停留,好在它们产生的废物总能找到排泄的出口。不过对栉水母而言,肛门似乎可有可无。此前的研究认为,栉水母体内长有一处永久性的排泄中心。但马萨诸塞州伍兹霍尔海洋生物实验室的研究人员去年发现,栉水母消化道的末端开口其实会规律性地出现和消失,使其成为了目前已知唯一拥有“时隐时现”的肛门的生物。进一步研究或能帮我们弄清为何其它生物都进化出了永久性肛门。

Food is destined not to last long in our bodies, for the waste it produces always finds an outlet for excretion. But for jellyfish, the anus seems dispensable. Previous studies have suggested that there is a permanent excretion center in the matrix. But researchers at the marine biology laboratory in woodshall, massachusetts, last year found that the openings at the end of the alimentary tract appear and disappear regularly, making it the only creature known to have a \"hidden\" anus. Further research may help us find out why other organisms have evolved permanent anus.

  众所周知,嗅觉与味觉密切相关。在大脑分析出的复杂味觉信息中,有一大部分都来自于食物的气味。但美国莫奈尔化学感官中心的研究人员在实验室中培育人类味蕾细胞、并将它们暴露在气味分子中时,却惊奇地发现,这些细胞产生了与鼻腔中的嗅觉细胞相同的反应。虽然这是科学家首次在人类味蕾细胞中发现嗅觉感受器,但人们曾在多处奇特的人体部位发现过嗅觉反应,如肠道、精子细胞、甚至头发等等。

It is well known that smell is closely related to taste. A large part of the complex taste information analyzed by the brain comes from the smell of food. But when researchers at the United States'Monnell Chemical Sensory Center cultivated human taste bud cells in the laboratory and exposed them to smell molecules, they were surprised to find that they produced the same reaction as olfactory cells in the nasal cavity. While it's the first time scientists have discovered olfactory receptors in human taste bud cells, olfactory responses have been found in a number of bizarre human parts, such as the gut, sperm cells, and even hair.

  当一名中国患者向医生抱怨右耳中“好像有东西在爬”时,医生完全没预料到自己竟会在该患者耳道中发现一只蜘蛛。这只蜘蛛在鼓膜附近结了张网,覆盖了病人的整个耳道,在里面住得相当惬意。医生试图用镊子把蜘蛛夹出来,但没能成功,最后不得不用生理盐水把它冲出来。这个场景虽然恐怖,但好在病人安然无恙。

When a chinese patient complained to a doctor that \"something seems to be crawling\" in his right ear, the doctor had no idea he would find a spider in his ear canal. The spider formed a web near the tympanic membrane, covering the patient's entire ear canal and living quite comfortably inside. The doctor tried to clip the spider out with tweezers but failed and eventually had to flush it out with normal saline. The scene was horrific, but the patient was safe.

  如果你看过《银河系漫游指南》,你一定对“42”这个数字很熟悉:它是生命、宇宙与万物的终极答案。但我们不知道对应的问题究竟是什么。不过就在去年,数学家找到了一个可能套得上的问题。此次研究结果来自著名难题“丢番图方程”,即能否将1到100之间的每一个整数都表达为三个整数的立方和。古代数学家丢番图曾在1800年前提出过一个类似的难题。如今,1到100之间的大多数整数都已经找到了对应的解,但42的整数解却动用了全球50万台计算机,尝试了无数种可能的解法,最后发现其整数解为(-80538738812075974)^3 (80435758145817515)^3 (12602123297335631)^3=42。怎么样,这个答案是不是令人心满意足呢?

If you've seen the Milky Way Walking Guide, you must be familiar with the number 42: it's the ultimate answer to life, the universe, and everything. But we don't know what the problem is. But just last year, mathematicians found a possible problem. The results of the study come from the famous puzzle,\" the topaz equation \", which is whether each integer between 1 and 100 can be expressed as a cubic sum of three integers. Almost 1800 years ago, a similar puzzle was raised by the ancient mathematician. Today, most of the integers between 1 and 100 have found their corresponding solutions, but the integer solution of 42 employs 500,000 computers worldwide and attempts numerous possible solutions. Finally, it is found that its integer solution is (-80538738812075974)^3(80435758145817515)^3(12602123297335631)^3=42. What, is the answer satisfactory?

  你家附近的警察局也许会时不时接到些大案小案,但也许没有哪起案件比这一起更离奇了。2019年8月21日,位于德国北部波罗的海海底的一台重约740公斤的科学设备被窃。该设备由德国亥姆霍茲海洋研究中心负责运作,事发时正在收集海床环境数据,结果信号突然消失。研究人员起初以为是信号传输出了问题。但潜水员下去检查情况时,却发现整座监测站都失踪了,只留下一截被切断的电缆。该研究中心指出,风暴、海浪和大型海洋动物都不可能挪得动这座监测站,并补充说被窃的数据是“无价之宝”。

The police station near your house may get a few big ones from time to time, but there may be no more bizarre one. On August 21,2019, a scientific equipment weighing about 740 kilograms on the bottom of the Baltic Sea in northern Germany was stolen. The equipment was operated by the Helmholtz Marine Research Centre in Germany, where data on the seabed environment were being collected and the signal suddenly disappeared. The researchers initially thought it was a signal transmission problem. But when the diver went down to check the situation, he found that the whole station was missing, leaving only a cut off cable. The center noted that storms, waves and large marine animals couldn't move the station, adding that stolen data was \"priceless.\"

  袋装沙拉是现代便利生活的伟大发明。但研究人员在2019年发表的一项研究中指出,自2003年来,购物者曾多次在袋装沙拉中发现过令人不快的“附加产品”,如青蛙、蜥蜴、小老鼠、甚至还有蝙蝠。在美国的20个州,共发生了40起这样的事件。其中10起事件发生时,袋子里的小动物甚至还是活着的。人们还需开展进一步观察,弄清这些小动物是何时、以及如何进入沙拉包装袋中的,以及采取哪些步骤才能避免此类事件的发生。

Bag salad is a great invention of modern convenience life. But in a study published in 2019, researchers noted that shoppers have found unpleasant \"add-ons\" such as frogs, lizards, mice and even bats in bagged salads on multiple occasions since 2003. There were 40 such incidents in 20 states. The small animals in the bag were even alive when 10 of the incidents occurred. Further observations need to be made to find out when and how the animals got into the salad bag and what steps were taken to avoid such incidents.

  “平面地球国际研讨会”(FEIC)计划在2020年扬帆远航,前往地球边缘,寻找阻止海水外流的冰墙。古希腊人在2000多年前就证明了地球是个球体,但一些极富想象力的人仍然坚信地球是个圆盘,北极居于正中,四周由冰墙环绕。不知道这些“地平论”支持者一路上要如何导航,毕竟全球导航系统依赖的是围绕地球的数十颗卫星构成的网络。假如地球真的是平的,那么只需三颗卫星,就能确定地表任意一点的位置了。

The “Plane Earth International Symposium (FEIC) plans to sail to the edge of the Earth in 2020 to find ice walls to stop the outflow of water. The ancient Greeks proved that the earth was a sphere more than 2000 years ago, but some highly imaginative people still believed that the earth was a disk, the north pole in the center, surrounded by ice walls. I don't know how these proponents navigate along the way, since gns relies on a network of dozens of satellites around the earth. If the earth were really flat, it would take only three satellites to determine the position of any point on the surface.

  2019年4月,NASA在期刊《天体生物学》上赞助发表的一篇报告指出,未来我们在寻找外星人时,或许应该格外注意寻找类似意面的细条形结构,因为地球上有些温泉边缘处就存在类似的结构,部分程度上是由微生物造就的。在美国黄石公园的猛犸象温泉区,水温介于65至72摄氏度之间,酸碱度从至不等。此处的嗜热微生物会将碳酸钙转化为一种长长的、黏糊糊的、意面状的结构。假如我们在其它行星上也发现了类似结构,也许能作为外星微生物存在的证据。

In April 2019, NASA sponsored a report in the journal Astrobiology that in the future, we may need to pay special attention to looking for spaghetti-like strip structures because there are similar structures at the edges of some of the hot springs on Earth, partly made by microbes. In the Mammoth Hot Springs area of Yellowstone Park in the United States, water temperatures range between 65 and 72 degrees Celsius, ranging in pH. The thermophilic microbes here convert calcium carbonate into a long, sticky, spaghetti-like structure. If we've found similar structures on other planets, it could be evidence of extraterrestrial microbes.

  据报道,英国南部海边小镇佩恩顿的一只四岁大的吉娃娃在自家花园里“思考狗生”时,忽然被一只海鸥叼走了。虽然这种事听上去很奇怪,但并不是不可能发生。有些鸟类属于杂食性动物,食物包括鱼类、无脊椎动物、蔬菜、被丢弃的人类食物,有时还有老鼠、鼹鼠、甚至兔子等小型哺乳动物。不过吉娃娃们用不着特别担心,因为它们虽然有可能会被海鸥攻击,但概率极低。

A four-year-old chihuahua from the southern English seaside town of Penntown was reportedly taken away by a seagull while \"thinking about the dog's birth\" in his garden. While this may sound strange, it is not impossible. Some birds are omnivorous and food includes fish, invertebrates, vegetables, discarded human food, and sometimes small mammals such as mice, moles, and even rabbits. But chihuahuas don't have to be particularly worried because they are highly likely to be attacked by seagulls.

  科学家在新泽西南部一处森林密布的地区发现了一条罕见的双头幼年响尾蛇。这类双头动物在野生条件下很难活到成年。因此发现它的两位科学家将它带了回去,给予它精心喂养和照顾。据科学家表示,这条蛇靠右侧的头似乎更占主导地位,但左侧的头偶尔也想“反其道而行之”。

Scientists have discovered a rare twin-headed juvenile rattlesnake in a forested area southwest of Sanzawa. This kind of double-headed animal is difficult to live to adulthood in wild conditions. So the two scientists who found it took it back and gave it careful feeding and care. According to scientists, the snake appears to be more dominant on the right side of the head, but the left side of the head occasionally wants to \"go the other way.\"

  下次有人说你“没有脑子”时,不妨把这当做一种称赞。研究发现,就连玫瑰喇叭虫这种简单的单细胞生物都能开展复杂的决策制定过程。面对刺激物时,这种喇叭状的单细胞生物会运用多种战术解决问题,比如从刺激物质旁边绕开、试图用纤毛将其推走、收缩身体避开刺激物、以及在无计可施时溜之大吉。它们能够“转换思维”,而不是一味遵循简单的预设指令,说明这种单细胞生物远比我们认为的精细复杂。

The next time someone says you have \"no brain,\" take it as a compliment. The study found that even simple single-cell organisms such as the rose hornworm could carry out complex decision-making processes. In the face of stimuli, the horn-like single-celled creature uses a variety of tactics to solve the problem, such as bypassing the irritants, trying to push them away with cilia, shrinking the body to avoid them, and slipping away when there is nothing to do. Instead of following simple preset instructions, they are able to \"transform thinking \", suggesting that this single-celled creature is far more sophisticated than we think.

  为确保月球上不存在任何有害生物,阿波罗任务的科学家们曾将月岩喂给过蟑螂、金鱼和小鼠。曾负责领导阿波罗任务医疗团队的查尔斯·贝利(CharlesBerry)在1999年解释道:“我们必须证明,月球物质不仅不会污染人类,还不会污染鱼类、鸟类、动物、植物、以及你能想到的任何事物。”在首次实现载人登月的阿波罗11号任务之后,NASA拿出了自己珍藏的月岩样本,让若干种代表性物种与之接触:代表鸟类的日本鹌鹑、几种普通鱼类、代表甲壳类的褐虾与牡蛎、代表昆虫的德国蟑螂与家蝇,甚至还有几株在月壤中培育的、茁壮成长的植物。参与阿波罗11号任务的宇航员们在完成任务后也经历了为时三周的隔离。结果均未发现任何月球微生物。

To ensure that there are no harmful creatures on the moon, Apollo scientists have fed moon rocks to cockroaches, goldfish and mice. Charles Berry, who led the Apollo mission's medical team, explained in 1999:\" We have to prove that lunar matter doesn't pollute not only humans but also fish, birds, animals, plants, and anything you can think of.\" After its first manned mission to the moon, the Apollo 11 mission, NASA produced its own collection of moon rock samples that brought several representative species into contact: Japanese quail, several common species of fish representing birds, brown shrimp and oysters representing crustaceans, German cockroaches and houseflies representing insects, and even several thriving plants grown in lunar soil. Astronauts on the Apollo 11 mission also experienced three weeks of isolation after completing the mission. No lunar microbes were found.

  一名人类学家在上世纪90年代发表的一篇报告中讲述了这样一个故事:在一场暴风雪中,一名因纽特男子用自己冻硬的粪便做了一把刀,然后用这把刀杀死了一条狗,并用这条狗的肋骨做了一套雪橇,乘着它消失在了夜色中。但事实证明,这可能只是因纽特人编出来哄骗人类学家的玩笑。为判断这个故事的真实性,俄亥俄州肯特州立大学的研究人员们一连八天遵循北极人的饮食习惯,摄入了大量蛋白质和脂肪酸,然后将自己的粪便冷却到零下50摄氏度,将其做成刀刃状,并用干冰保持冷冻状态。这些用粪便制成的刀刃非常坚硬,但根本切不动肉,只能在肉上留下蜡笔一样的棕色痕迹。

An anthropologist told the story in a report published in the 1990s that an Inuit man used his frozen-hard feces to make a knife and then used it to kill a dog and make a set of sleds with the dog's ribs, riding it away in the night. But as it turns out, it's probably just a joke the Inuit made up to cajole anthropologists. To gauge the truth of the story, researchers at kent state university in ohio followed the arctic's diet for eight days, consuming a lot of protein and fatty acids, then cooling their droppings to minus 50 degrees celsius, making them blade-shaped and keeping them frozen with dry ice. These fecal blades are very hard, but don't cut meat at all, leaving only crayon-like brown marks on the meat.

  位于旧金山北部的德雷克斯海滩上个月出现了一番冬日奇景:成千上万条“阴茎鱼”在海滩上“泛滥成灾”。你可能想问,好端端的鱼干嘛要叫这个名字呢?可能与它们的形状和长度有关吧。这种生物其实是一种原产于俄勒冈州南部与墨西哥之间太平洋海岸边的海蠕虫。它们一般会在沙滩上钻洞,挖出一条条隧道般的地下通道,在其中栖身和进食。但发生暴风雨时,它们温馨的家园就会被摧毁,导致它们无处可去,不得不横陈在海滩上。(叶子)

The Drakes Beach, just north of San Francisco, had a winter wonder last month: Thousands of \"penis fish\" had \"overrun\" on the beach. You might want to ask, why would a good fish call that name? It's probably about their shape and length. The creature is actually a sea worm native to the Pacific coast between southern Oregon and Mexico. They typically drill holes in the sand, making tunnel-like underpasses in which they take shelter and feed. But in the event of a storm, their cozy homes will be destroyed, leaving them nowhere to go and left on the beach. (Leaves)


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