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古诗十九首中的传世名作,犯了唐诗中几乎见不到的这个诗病
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古诗十九首中的传世名作,犯了唐诗中几乎见不到的这个诗病西北有高楼,上与浮云齐。是汉代《古诗十九首》之

西北有高楼,上与浮云齐。是汉代《古诗十九首》之一,不过,很多人阅读这首诗的时候,会发现这两句诗有点怪,似乎跟唐宋以后的五言诗不太一样,却说不出为什么?

There are tall buildings in the northwest. It is one of the 19 ancient poems in the Han Dynasty, but when many people read this poem, they will find that the two poems are a little strange, which seems to be different from the five-character poems after the Tang and Song dynasties, but they cannot say why?

仔细阅读这首诗,会发现有两点区别,和唐诗有所不同。这种差别,其实从南北朝齐梁时期就开始形成了。先看一下这首诗的全貌:

Read the poem carefully, you will find that there are two differences, and Tang poetry is different. This difference, in fact, from the Southern and Northern dynasties Qiliang period began to form. Take a full look at the poem:

西北有高楼,上与浮云齐。交疏结绮窗,阿阁三重阶。上有弦歌声,音响一何悲!谁能为此曲,无乃杞梁妻。清商随风发,中曲正徘徊。一弹再三叹,慷慨有余哀。不惜歌者苦,但伤知音稀。愿为双鸿鹄,奋翅起高飞。一、上尾

There are tall buildings in the northwest. Cross Shu Qi window, A Pavilion triple steps. On the string song, the sound of a sad! Who can do this song, no wife is Qi Liang. Qing merchants follow the wind, the middle song is wandering. There's a lot of generosity. Those who sing are bitter, but they know little. Be willing to fly for a double swan. I. Top end

日本空海和尚《文镜秘府论》中,记录了当年他作为遣唐使所学到的唐朝诗学理论,在这本书中,详细讲解了四声八病。

In the paper, the author records the poetic theory of tang dynasty, which he learned as an envoy of tang dynasty. In this book, the author explains four diseases in detail.

上尾诗者,五言诗中第五字不得与第十字同声。名为上尾。詩曰:“西北有高楼,上与浮云齐。”第五字是:楼,第十字是:齐。这是一种诗病。

The fifth word in the five-character poem shall not sound like the tenth word. It's called the end. The poem said,\" there are tall buildings in the northwest. The fifth word is: building, the tenth word is: Qi. This is a disease of poetry.

沈约等人所说的四声有平、上、去、入。楼、齐,都是平声,所以就是同声。这种情况被称为:上尾。是八病中的第二种病。

Shen yo et al. said the four voices are flat, up, go, enter. Building, Qi, are flat, so is the same voice. This situation is called: the upper end. Is the second of the eight.

或云:如陆机诗曰:“衰草蔓长河,寒木入云烟。”(“河”与“烟”平声。)此上尾,齐、梁已前,时有犯者。《文镜秘府论》不过,齐梁以后的诗人如果还会出现上尾,就会被其他人认为是个门外汉,不懂作诗:

Or cloud: such as land machine poem said:\" decline grass long river, cold wood into smoke.\" The river is level with the smoke. ) At the end of this period, Qi and Liang have come forward. However, if the poet after Qi Liang will appear on the end, it will be regarded by others as a layman, do not know how to write poetry:

齐、梁已来,无有犯者。此为巨病。若犯者,文人以为未涉文途者也。《文镜秘府论》我们如果注意观察齐梁以后、乃至唐朝以后的诗,就会发现诗人们大多会避免上尾之病。例如

Qi and Liang have come, and there are no prisoners. This is a serious disease. If the offender, the literati think that the text is not involved. If we pay attention to the poems after Qiliang and even after Tang Dynasty, we will find that most poets will avoid the disease of the last. For example

朝发披香【殿】,夕济汾阴【河】。於兹怀九逝,自此敛双蛾。沾妆疑湛露,绕臆状流波。日见奔沙起,稍觉转蓬多。胡风犯肌骨,非直伤绮罗。衔涕试南望,关山郁嵯峨。始作阳春曲,终成苦寒歌。惟有三五夜,明月暂经过。第一句结尾:殿,是去声;第二句结尾:河,是平声。包括后面的诗句都是如此单数句都是仄声,双数句都是平声。

Chao hair incense [Temple], Xi Ji Fen Yin [River]. Since then, the moths have been gathered. Make up doubtful Zhanlu, around the imaginary flow wave. When the sun rises in the sand, it turns more. Hu feng attack muscle bone, non-direct injury qiluo. Runny try south to see, guanshan shaga. The beginning makes the spring song, finally becomes the bitter cold song. Only three or five nights pass by. The first sentence ends: the temple, is to go to the sound; the second sentence ends: the river, is the flat sound. Including the following verses are so singular that they are all narrow and even.

东来万里【客】,乱定几年【归】。肠断江城雁,高高正北飞。第一句结尾客,是入声,第二句结尾归,是平声。第三句雁,是去声,第四句飞,是平声。

Thousands of miles to the east. He broke the river and flew high north. At the end of the first sentence, the guest is in the sound, and at the end of the second sentence, the flat sound. The third goose, is to go to the sound, the fourth sentence flies, is the flat sound.

纨绔不饿【死】,儒冠多误【身】。丈人试静听,贱子请具陈。甫昔少年日,早充观国宾。读书破万卷,下笔如有神.......第一句结尾:死,是上声,第二句结尾:身,是平声。后面的单数句,听、日、卷都是仄声,陈、宾、神是平声。

A dandy is not hungry. Father-in-law try to listen, bitch please show. Past youth day, early to watch the state guests. When you read, you write like a god. .....。 The end of the first sentence: death, is the sound, the end of the second sentence: body, is flat. The following singular sentence, listening, day, volume are all narrow voice, Chen, object, God is flat voice.

唯连韵者,非病也。如“青青河畔草,绵绵思远道”是也。《文镜秘府论》也就是第一句押韵的话,就不是上尾了。例如沈约的《日出东南隅行》:

The rhyme is not the disease. Such as \"green riverside grass, continuous thinking far road\" is also. The first rhyming word is the secret of the literary mirror. For example, Shen Yue's \"Sunrise Southeast Corner \":

朝日出邯【郸】,照我丛台【端】。中有倾城艳,顾景织罗纨。延躯似纤约,遗视若回澜。瑶装映层绮,金服炫雕栾。幸有同匡好,西仕服秦官。宝剑垂玉贝,汗马饰金鞍。萦场类转雪,逸控写腾鸾。罗衣夕解带,玉钗暮垂冠。第一句结尾:郸,第二句结尾:端,两个字同声,但是押韵,就不是上尾了。懂格律诗的朋友知道,格律诗第一句如果是平声结尾,必须要押韵。所以说注意四声八病的永明体是格律诗的雏形,直接影响到了唐朝的形成。

The sun rises out of the sun. The city is full of beauty. The extension of the body like a slender, left to look back. Yao clothes reflect the layer of Qi, Jinfu Xuan Diao Luan. Fortunately with Kuang, Xi Shi served Qin Guan. The sword hangs the jade shellfish, the sweat horse adorns the golden saddle. Runs the field class to turn the snow, the escape control writes the Teng Luan. Luo Yi Xi untied belt, jade hairpin twilight crown. The end of the first sentence: Dan, the end of the second sentence: the end, two words sound the same, but rhyme, is not the end. A friend who knows the verse knows that the first sentence of the verse, if it ends in flat tones, must rhyme. Therefore, it is noted that the Yongming body of the four sounds and eight diseases is the embryonic form of the rhythm poem, which directly affects the formation of the Tang Dynasty.

胡马大宛名,锋棱瘦骨成。竹批双耳峻,风入四蹄轻。所向无空阔,真堪托死生。骁腾有如此,万里可横行。名,首句平声,押韵。

Hu ma big wan name, front edge thin bone. Bamboo batch ears, wind into the four hoofs light. What is empty and wide is worthy of death. It's like this. It's a million miles away. Name, first sentence flat, rhyme.

床前明月【光】,疑是地上【霜】。举头望明月,低头思故乡。齐梁以后的诗人特别注意避免上尾,当然也会有不在意的诗人,例如李白的《秀华亭》

The moon [light] in front of the bed is like the earth [frost]. Looking up at the moon, thinking of hometown. After Qi Liang's poets pay special attention to avoid the end, of course, there will be poets who do not care, such as Li Bai's \"Xiu Hua Ting\"

遥望九华【峰】,诚然是九【华】。苍颜耐风雪,奇态灿云霞。曜日凝成锦,凌霄增壁崖。何当余荫照,天造洞仙家。【峰】、【华】同声但是不押韵。

Looking at Jiuhua [Feng], it is true that Jiuhua [Hua]. The face of the snow, strange state of clouds. The obsidian day condenses into brocade, the Ling Xiao increases the cliff. When the shadow is shining, the heavens make the cave fairy. [Peak ],[ Hua] in tune but not in rhyme.

西北有高楼,上与浮云齐。◆齐【上平八齐】交疏结绮窗,阿阁三重阶。◆阶【上平九佳】上有弦歌声,音响一何悲!◆悲【上平四支】谁能为此曲,无乃杞梁妻。◆妻【上平八齐】清商随风发,中曲正徘徊。◆徊【上平十灰】一弹再三叹,慷慨有余哀。◆哀【上平十灰】不惜歌者苦,但伤知音稀。◆稀【上平五微】愿为双鸿鹄,奋翅起高飞。◆飞【上平五微】用平水韵来分辨,可以看出,有【上平八齐】【上平九佳】【上平四支】【上平十灰】【上平五微】五个韵部。

There are tall buildings in the northwest, and the clouds are on the same level. Qi [Shangping eight Qi] Jiao Shujie Qi window, A GE three steps. There are strings and songs on the steps. How sad is the sound! Sad [Shangping four] who can this song, is not Qi Liang wife. Wife [Shangping eight Qi] Qing Shang with the wind, Zhongqu is wandering. Linger [flat ten ash] repeatedly sigh, generous have more sorrow. The singer is bitter, but his voice is thin. Wishing to be a double swan, wielding one's wings. It can be seen that there are [Shangping eight Qi ][ Shangping nine best ][ Shangping four ][ Shangping ten gray ][ Shangping five micro] five rhyme parts.

古体诗是可以换韵的,但是根据换韵的规律,可以看出至少前面八句肯定没有换韵。但是前8句仍然有三个不同的韵部:【上平八齐】【上平九佳】【上平四支】。

Ancient poetry can change rhyme, but according to the law of rhyme change, we can see that at least the first eight sentences certainly did not change rhyme. But there are still three different rhymes in the first eight sentences:[ top eight ][ top nine ][ top four].

“支、微、齐”为一类,“支微”较近,它们与“齐”较远。...“佳、灰”为一类。《汉语诗律学》可见,这五个韵部在南北朝以后不同时作为邻韵。

"Branch, micro, Qi" is a class," branch micro "is closer, they are far from" Qi ". 。.。 "Good, gray" is a class. As can be seen from "Chinese Poetry and Rhythmology ", these five rhymes were different as neighbor rhymes after the Southern and Northern Dynasties.

千山鸟飞绝,万径人踪灭。孤舟蓑笠翁,独钓寒江雪。柳宗元借歌咏江中渔翁,来寄托自己孤傲而失意情感,未必是写实景。而这首《西北有高楼》也是如此。很多人认为这是诗人虚拟的境界,通篇比兴寄托。

Thousands of birds fly away. Solitary boat coir hat Weng, fishing alone cold river snow. Liu Zongyuan to sing the river fishing Weng, to rely on their own pride and frustrated feelings, may not be written scene. The same is true of this song, The High Building in the Northwest. Many people think that this is the virtual realm of poets.

古人常用思妇比喻怀才不遇的贤士,诗人用听者的角度刻画了一个缺少知音的另一个自己。怜惜他人,正是怜惜自己。而这个“一弹再三叹,慷慨有余哀”的杞梁妻形象,才是真实的诗人心灵写照。

The ancients often used the simian woman to describe the talented person who never met, the poet used the listener's angle to portray another self who lacked the bosom friend. To pity others is to pity oneself. And this \"one and three sighs, the generosity of the rest of the mourning\" the image of Qiliang wife, is the true poet's soul portrayal.

愿为双鸿鹄,奋翅起高飞。古诗十九首中,写得最多的就是游子与思妇的题材,反应了底层知识分子的失意、彷徨与痛苦。语言浅显而情真意切,善于使用比兴与寄托手法,对于后人的诗歌创造影响深远。

Be willing to fly for a double swan. Of the 19 ancient poems, the most written is the theme of wandering and thinking women, reflecting the frustration, loss and pain of the underlying intellectuals. Simple language and sincere feelings, good at the use of fun and sustenance techniques, for posterity's poetry creation far-reaching impact.

南北朝以前的诗,读起来感觉和唐宋诗不同,上尾和韵脚的变化是两个常见的原因。《文镜秘府论》中,提到的“青青河畔草,绵绵思远道。”出自汉乐府《饮马长城窟行》:

The previous poems of the Southern and Northern dynasties, which read as if they were different from those of the Tang and Song dynasties, were two common reasons for the change of the upper tail and the rhyme foot. \"Wenjing Secret House theory,\" mentioned\" green river grass, think far.\" From the Han Yuefu \"Drinking Horse Great Wall Grottoes \":

青青河畔草,绵绵思远道。远道不可思,宿昔梦见之。梦见在我傍,忽觉在他乡。他乡各异县,辗转不相见。枯桑知天风,海水知天寒。入门各自媚,谁肯相为言。客从远方来,遗我双鲤鱼。呼儿烹鲤鱼,中有尺素书。长跪读素书,书中竟何如。上言加餐食,下言长相忆。前八句中,每两句一换韵。两句都押韵,所以避免的上尾。但是第9、10句,又有上尾之病:

Green river grass, think far. Far from thinking, I dreamt of it. Dream in my side, suddenly feel in another country. Different counties, toss and turn. The dead mulberry knows the wind, the sea knows the cold. Get started and talk to each other. The guest comes from far away, leaves me double carp. Huer cooking carp, there are ruler of the book. Long kneel to read the book, the book unexpectedly he Ru. On the words plus food, the next words long memory. In the first eight sentences, every two sentences change the rhyme. Both lines rhyme, so avoid the top end. However, there is a disease of the last:

枯桑知天【风】,海水知天【寒】。发现了吗?9、10、11、12,这四句为一组韵,但是翻了上尾之病。上尾并非仅仅出现在一首诗的前两句。

The withered mulberry knows the sky [wind], the sea knows the sky [cold]. Did you find out? 9.10,11,12, these four sentences are a set of rhymes, but turn over the disease. The first two sentences of a poem are not the only ones at the end.


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